Excessive migration of monocytes to a site of intestinal inflammation contributes to tissue damage in Crohn's disease. It is known that cilostazol, a specific phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE-3) inhibitor of platelets, decreases monocyte recruitment to intestinal mucosa through suppression of platelet-monocyte interactions. The objective of this study was to clarify whether cilostazol ameliorates murine ileitis by suppression of monocyte migration. Significant inflammation was induced in the ileum of SAMP1/Yit mice at 23 wk of age after piroxicam treatment for 3 wk. Weight of the terminal ileum of mice was significantly greater with inflammatory cell infiltration in SAMP1/Yit mice than in control mice (AKR-J). Treatment of SAMP1/Yit mice with cilostazol-containing food (200 ppm) for 3 wk significantly attenuated the increase in intestinal weight and the histological changes, including invasion of F4/80-positive macrophages. A significant increase in migration of monocytes and platelets to microvessels of the ileal mucosa was observed in SAMP/Yit mice in vivo by using an intravital fluorescence microscope. Pretreatment with cilostazol significantly attenuated the increased migration of monocytes, possibly through suppression of platelet-monocyte interactions. In conclusion, a PDE-3 inhibitor ameliorates murine ileitis through attenuating migration of monocytes to the intestinal mucosa, suggesting a potential usefulness of antiplatelet drugs for treatment of Crohn's disease.