Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are 2 well-defined entities that diverge in their basic pathogenic mechanisms and clinical evolution but they share epidemiological characteristics, cells of origin, molecular alterations, and clinical features that differ from other lymphoid neoplasms. CLL and MCL are classically considered indolent and aggressive neoplasms, respectively. However, the clinical evolution of both tumors is very heterogeneous, with subsets of patients having stable disease for a long time whereas others require immediate intervention. Both CLL and MCL include 2 major molecular subtypes that seem to derive from antigen-experienced CD5+ B cells that retain a naive or memory-like epigenetic signature and carry a variable load of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region somatic mutations from truly unmutated to highly mutated, respectively. These 2 subtypes of tumors differ in their molecular pathways, genomic alterations, and clinical behavior, being more aggressive in naive-like than memory-like-derived tumors in both CLL and MCL. The pathogenesis of the 2 entities integrates the relevant influence of B-cell receptor signaling, tumor cell microenvironment interactions, genomic alterations, and epigenome modifications that configure the evolution of the tumors and offer new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. This review will focus on the similarities and differences of these 2 tumors based on recent studies that are enhancing the understanding of their pathogenesis and creating solid bases for new management strategies. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.