Renal dysfunction of acute liver failure (ALF) may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms to hepatorenal syndrome of cirrhosis. Yet, the impact of perioperative renal function on posttransplant renal outcomes in ALF patients specifically has not been established. The aims of this study were (1) to describe the incidence and risk factors for chronic renal dysfunction following liver transplantation for ALF and (2) to compare renal outcomes with age-sex-matched patients transplanted for chronic liver disease. This was a single-center study of 101 patients transplanted for ALF. Fifty-three-and-a-half percent had pretransplant acute kidney injury and 64.9% required perioperative renal replacement therapy. After transplantation the 5-year cumulative incidence of chronic kidney disease (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m²) was 41.5%. There was no association between perioperative acute kidney injury (p = 0.288) or renal replacement therapy (p = 0.134) and chronic kidney disease. Instead, the independent predictors of chronic kidney disease were older age (p = 0.019), female gender (p = 0.049), hypertension (p = 0.031), cyclosporine (p = 0.027) and nonacetaminophen-induced ALF (p = 0.039). Despite marked differences in the perioperative clinical condition and survival of patients transplanted for ALF and chronic liver disease, renal outcomes were the same. In conclusion, in patients transplanted for ALF the severity of perioperative renal injury does not predict posttransplant chronic renal dysfunction.