Drug dosing is challenging in patients with end-stage renal disease. Not only is renal drug elimination reduced, but nonrenal clearance pathways are also altered. Increasing evidence suggest that uremia impacts drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters leading to changes in nonrenal clearance. However, the exact mechanisms are not yet fully understood, and the acute effects of dialysis are inadequately investigated. We prospectively phenotyped cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A; midazolam) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/organic anion-transporting proteins (OATP; fexofenadine) in 12 patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis; a day after ("clean") and a day prior to ("dirty") dialysis. Unbound midazolam clearance decreased with time after dialysis; median (range) reduction of 14% (-3% to 41%) from "clean" to "dirty" day (P = 0.001). Fexofenadine clearance was not affected by time after dialysis (P = 0.68). In conclusion, changes in uremic milieu between dialysis sessions induce a small, direct inhibitory effect on CYP3A activity, but do not alter P-gp/OATP activity. © 2020 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.