A role of tobacco products in cancer incidence is commonly known and accepted. It is estimated that roughly 1/3 of all the cancers is resulted from previous exposure to tobacco. An impact of tobacco smoke carcinogens in formation of DNA lesions and mutations is well established. Contrary to that, less is known about rearrangements of chromosomes. Nevertheless, there are many indications associating rearrangements of chromosome arms 3p, 3q, 8q, 9p, 17p i 18q with a clastogenic activity of tobacco smoke. An evolution of cytogenetics from conventional techniques to molecular cytogenetics provides an opportunity to find some links between chromosome aberrations and activation of oncogenes as well as deactivation of tumor suppressor genes.