Two different cDNAs for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were isolated from a cDNA library constructed with mRNA prepared from human squamous carcinoma cells, which produce G-CSF constitutively. The nucleotide sequence analysis of both cDNAs indicated that two polypeptides coded by these cDNAs are different at one position where three amino acids are deleted/inserted. When the two cDNAs were introduced into monkey COS cells under the SV40 early promoter, both of them produced proteins having authentic G-CSF activity and some difference in the specific activity was suggested. A human gene library was then screened with the G-CSF cDNA and the DNA fragment containing the G-CSF chromosomal gene was characterized by the nucleotide sequence analysis. The human G-CSF gene is interrupted by four introns and a comparison of the structures of the two G-CSF cDNAs with that of the chromosomal gene indicated that the two mRNAs are generated by alternative use of two 5' splice donor sequences in the second intron of the G-CSF gene. When the G-CSF chromosomal gene was expressed in monkey COS cells by using the SV40 enhancer two mRNAs were detected by S1 mapping analysis.