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Choroidal Changes in Diabetic Patients With Different Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors
  • Hamadneh, Tariq1, 2
  • Aftab, Saba3, 4
  • Sherali, Nazleen5, 4
  • Vetrivel Suresh, Rishwanth4
  • Tsouklidis, Nicholas6, 4, 7
  • An, MeiXia1
  • 1 Ophthalmology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, CHN
  • 2 & Psychology, Fairfield, USA
  • 3 Medicine, Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry, Karachi, PAK
  • 4 Medicine, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences & Psychology, Fairfield, USA
  • 5 Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, PAK
  • 6 Health Care Administration, University of Cincinnati Health, Cincinnati, USA
  • 7 Medicine, Atlantic University School of Medicine, Gros Islet, LCA
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cureus
Publisher
Cureus, Inc.
Publication Date
Oct 09, 2020
Volume
12
Issue
10
Identifiers
DOI: 10.7759/cureus.10871
PMID: 33178524
PMCID: PMC7652371
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Ophthalmology
License
Green
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Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the long-term microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is considered a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. Chronic hyperglycemia can cause microvascular abnormalities to the retina and the choroid as well. The vascular tissue of the choroid supplies blood to the outer retina, photoreceptors, and retinal pigment epithelium. It plays an important role in the metabolic exchange of the retina. Many experimental studies reported that choroidal pathology in diabetic patients might play a role in developing DR. Choroidal thickness (CT) can reflect changes in the vasculature of the choroid and can be used to assess the vascularity of the choroid itself. CT differs between healthy and diseased states of the eye as well as with the aging process. This means that thinner or thicker choroid may indicate an ocular disease. Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) is also used as a marker for choroidal vascularity assessment and indirectly measures choroidal vascularity quantitatively. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate the choroid in many different ocular diseases. However, the results regarding CT in DM, especially in patients with DR, are various as thickened, thinned, or no changes. Thus, the status of the choroid in patients with DM with or without DR remains controversial between researchers. In this systematic review, we reviewed 18 articles that were done to investigate the relationship between structural choroidal changes in diabetic patients with different stages of DR, focusing on CT, CVI, and some other parameters evaluating choroidal changes.

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