The study compares neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months corrected age of very preterm infants exposed to chorioamnionitis and controls. Peripartal parameters which may influence outcome are also investigated. In this observational population-based study, very preterm infants born between 2007 and 2017 were eligible (n = 466) and included if a histological placental examination and a complete neurodevelopmental assessment (Bayley Scale of Infant Development II or III) (n = 168) were performed. Secondary analyses were calculated to identify peripartal factors that significantly influence mental and psychomotor outcome. Included infants showed a mean MDI of 91.2 (SD = 20.7) and a mean PDI of 99.4 (SD = 14.8). Infants with (n = 71) and without (n = 97) chorioamnionitis did not statistically differ either with mean MDI (91.8 vs. 90.3 points; p = 0.29) or mean PDI (98.3 vs. 100.9 points; p = 0.81), even after controlling for gestational age, mean APGAR scores and administration of antenatal steroids. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was identified as the most influential factor for both MDI (p = .024) and PDI (p = .004). We could not find an effect of chorioamnionitis on neurodevelopmental outcome of very preterm infants over an eleven-year period. Analysis shows that postnatal factors have higher impacts than does chorioamnionitis. ©2020 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.