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Cholera toxin, LT-I, LT-IIa and LT-IIb: the critical role of ganglioside binding in immunomodulation by type I and type II heat-labile enterotoxins.

Authors
  • Connell, Terry D
Type
Published Article
Journal
Expert Review of Vaccines
Publisher
Informa UK (Taylor & Francis)
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2007
Volume
6
Issue
5
Pages
821–834
Identifiers
PMID: 17931161
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The heat-labile enterotoxins expressed by Vibrio cholerae (cholera toxin) and Escherichia coli (LT-I, LT-IIa and LT-IIb) are potent systemic and mucosal adjuvants. Coadministration of the enterotoxins with a foreign antigen produces an augmented immune response to that antigen. Although each enterotoxin has potent adjuvant properties, the means by which the enterotoxins induce various immune responses are distinctive for each adjuvant. Various mutants have been engineered to dissect the functions of the enterotoxins required for their adjuvanticity. The capacity to strongly bind to one or more specific ganglioside receptors appears to drive the distinctive immunomodulatory properties associated with each enterotoxin. Mutant enterotoxins with ablated or altered ganglioside-binding affinities have been employed to investigate the role of gangliosides in enterotoxin-dependent immunomodulation.

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