Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is a mucosal infection caused by Candida spp., and it is common among the immunocompromised. This condition is mainly treated using oral antifungals. Chlorhexidine (CHD) is a fungicidal and is available as a mouth wash and oral gel. It is used as an adjuvant in the treatment of OPC due to the low residence time of the current formulations. In this study, its activity was tested against C. albicans biofilm and biocompatibility with the HEK293 human cell line. Then, it was formulated as mucoadhesive hydrogel buccal tablets to extend its activity. Different ratios of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), poloxamer 407 (P407), and three different types of polyols were used to prepare the tablets, which were then investigated for their physicochemical properties, ex vivo mucoadhesion, drug release profiles, and the kinetics of drug release. The release was performed using Apparatus I and a controlled flow rate (CFR) method. The results show that CHD is biocompatible and effective against Candida biofilm at a concentration of 20 µg/mL. No drug excipient interaction was observed through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The increase in P407 and polyol ratios showed a decrease in the swelling index and an increase in CHD in vitro release. The release of CHD from the selected formulations was 86–92%. The results suggest that chlorhexidine tablets are a possible candidate for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis.