Chinese hamster ovary cell lines that are 1000-fold more resistant to the threonyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor borrelidin than the sensitive parental cells were isolated after stepwise selection for growth in increasing concentrations of the drug. These cells show a 10-20-fold increase in threonyl-tRNA synthetase activity. Quantitation of the amount of threonyl-tRNA synthetase protein by immunological techniques indicated a 60-100-fold increase compared to sensitive cells. No significant changes in the Km for substrates, inhibition by borrelidin or thermal stability were found for the threonyl-tRNA synthetase of resistant cells. These data suggest that the resistant cell lines may have amplified the gene encoding threonyl-tRNA synthetase, but no evidence of homogeneously staining regions or double minute chromosomes was found. The resistant cell lines should prove useful for the study of the regulation of threonyl-tRNA synthetase.