There are no many examples of studies about childhood health and even less frequent are the investigations about prevention and the diffusion of ophthalmological examination among children. Our data result from a pretty representative sample of Italian reality. The main feature of visual health among the children included in our research is the great spread of refractive errors, according to most economically advanced countries. Parents play a key role regarding childhood prevention, because they seem to have a high level of awareness in most included regions. Therefore, the family should represent the recipient of efforts in order to move up further the ophthalmological examination on children, preferably at birth.