Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, and childhood trauma has been found to be an important risk factor. However, the mechanisms linking trauma to suicide risk remain unclear. Aims: The current registered report sought to (1) investigate whether childhood trauma and its subtypes were related to suicide risk in adulthood and (2) explore the potential mechanisms associating childhood trauma with suicide and well-being, especially executive functioning, impulsivity, and stress. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 457 individuals who reported experiencing suicide ideation in the past 12 months. Results: Childhood trauma and its subtypes were associated with an increased risk of reporting recent suicide thoughts, COVID-19-related suicide attempts, and recent suicide attempts. There were also significant indirect effects of childhood trauma on recent suicide ideation and well-being through executive functioning and impulsivity. Conclusion: These findings show that childhood trauma is associated with suicide risk in adulthood and suggest that poorer executive functioning and higher levels of impulsivity contribute to this increased risk. These results have implications for the development of future interventions to reduce suicide vulnerability.