The 1980 infant mortality rate of 107/1000 live births in Indonesia was 2 to 3 times the average rate in surrounding Asian countries. Provincial rates vary from 187 in West Nusa Tenggara to 62 in Yogyakarta. This variation is explained in part by female education levels, access to health facilities, and the impress of health aid and system programs, especially family planning. In addition, mortality rates and the usage of modern health care continue to reflect historical and cultural imprints. A program strategy for improvements in infant and child mortality focus on 4 basic elements: 1) growth monitoring, 2) oral rehydration therapy, 3) breast feeding, and 4) immunization. These efforts are delivered largely through the Expanded Immunisation Programme and the Family Nutrition Programme. A potential major breakthrough in primary health care has been realized with the development of a network of integrated health posts (posyandu) which deliver multiple services more efficiently in rural areas.