The Naylor Report (2015) states that nurse practitioners (NP) are still underutilized in Canada despite positive evidence of their work and the benefits they provide to health systems and, more generally, the health of the population. Why are nurse practitioners not more actively involved in the Canadian health care system? A socio-historical literature review showed that there is overlap, interdependence or complementarity between the role of NPs and that of other health professionals and that this concerns their status, training as well as the scope of their practice. The development of an interprofessional collaborative approach, although supported by most professional nursing associations in Canada, is difficult to establish in NP practice and training. This article describes the emergence of the role of NPs in Canada and provides an update on the current status of their integration in the health system with reference to the Ontario example. It provides insight into the overlap and zones of complementarity or interdependence between NPs and other health professionals. In conclusion, the authors call for improved governance by the contribution of a new collaborative contract with other health professionals. This contract should be based on the interdependence of practices and the complementarity of roles between all health professionals including NPs.