Volatile components of seven species of the Bazzanioideae sub-family (Lepidoziaceae) native to New Caledonia, including three endemic species (Bazzania marginata, Acromastigum caledonicum and A. tenax), were analyzed by GC-FID-MS in order to index these plants to known or new chemotypes. Detected volatile constituents in studied species were constituted mainly by sesquiterpene, as well as diterpene compounds. All so-established compositions cannot successfully index some of them to known chemotypes but afforded the discovery of new chemotypes such as cuparane/fusicoccane. The major component of B. francana was isolated and characterized as a new zierane-type sesquiterpene called ziera-12(13),10(14)-dien-5-ol (23). In addition, qualitative intraspecies variations of chemical composition were very important particularly for B. francana which possessed three clearly defined different compositions. We report here also the first phytochemical investigation of Acromastigum species. Moreover, crude diethyl ether extract of B. vitatta afforded a new bis(bibenzyl) called vittatin (51), for which a putative biosynthesis was suggested.