The Scandinavian Sarcoma Group (SSG) started its first chemotherapy study in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in 1981 (SSG I). This study evaluated single agent doxorubicin given adjuvant in a prospective randomized trial in patients with high-grade STS. Neither overall survival nor disease-free survival was improved. Combination chemotherapy was hereafter studied in a phase II study (1991-1994) combining ifosfamide and continuous infusion etoposide with growth factor support (SSG X). The response rate in previously untreated patients was high (42%), but complete remissions were few. Analysis made on patients operated after chemotherapy indicated improved survival in this subgroup. Meta-analyses of adjuvant chemotherapy for localised resectable STS in adults, including the SSG I trial, has indicated improved disease-free survival and a trend towards improved overall survival. Presently, SSG is testing whether such a benefit can be found for adjuvant ifosfamide and doxorubicin treatment given after primary surgery in selected patients with high-grade STS and other well defined unfavourable prognostic factors (SSG XIII).