The chemotactic properties of an oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 6-1B, isolated from Daqing Oilfield, China, have been investigated. The strain 6-1B could grow well in crude oil with a specific rhamnolipid biosurfactant production. Furthermore, it exhibits chemotaxis toward various substrates, including glycine, glycerol, glucose, and sucrose. Compared with another oil-degrading strain, T7-2, the strain 6-1B presented a better chemotactic response towards crude oil and its vital component, n-alkenes. Based on the observed distribution of the strain 6-1B cells around the oil droplet in the chemotactic assays, the potential chemotaxis process of bacteria toward crude oil could be summarized in the following steps: searching, moving and consuming.