Fueled by the results from recently published large interventional trials the topic of chemoprevention of prostate cancer has increasingly attracted the interest of practicing urologists. In this analysis the term"chemoprevention" comprises all agents not included in regular food intake. If possible, the results from interventional studies were considered. Today, it must be accepted as evidence-based that chemoprevention of prostate cancer by 5alpha-reductase inhibition using finasteride is possible. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) may also have preventive potential. Prospective interventional trials investigating these substances are currently underway. Considering the high incidence and the fact that the diagnosis of prostate cancer has serious impact on the future life of the respective individuals further scientific evaluation of chemoprevention of prostate cancer is mandatory.