This paper reviews the chemical and functional aspects of the posttranslational modifications of proteins, which are achieved by the addition of various groups to the side chain of the amino acid residue backbone of proteins. It describes the main prosthetic groups and the interaction of these groups and the apoenzyme in the process of catalysis, using pyridoxal catalysis as an example. Much attention is paid to the role of posttranslational modification of proteins in the regulation of biochemical processes in live organisms, and especially to the role of protein kinases and their respective phosphotases. Methylation and acetylation reactions and their role in the "histone code", which regulates genome expression on the transcription level, are also reviewed. This paper also describes the modification of proteins by large hydrophobic residues and their role in the function of membrane-associated proteins. Much attention is paid to the glycosylation of proteins, which leads to the formation of glycoproteins. We also describe the main non-enzymatic protein modifications such as glycation, homocysteination, and desamida-tion of amide residues in dibasic acids.