The development of more sustainable remediation techniques has been receiving greater attention, as an alternative to soil excavation plan in urban gardens. An in situ phytoextraction experiment with buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) was performed with a 5 mmol kg-1 citric acid (CA) application. Joint experiments under laboratory conditions were conducted using various cultivars of F. esculentum in two soils with a Pb contamination of either geogenic or anthropogenic origin and various chelate concentrations. Results show that a minimum dose of 50 mmol kg-1 of CA is required to lower soil pH and raise the concentration of mobile Pb-CaCl2 for both soils. Consequently, Pb shoot uptake is increased from 6.3 to 8.9 times depending on soil type. Phytoextraction efficiency is found to be 1.3 to 2.0 times higher in the anthropogenic contaminated soil than in the soil with geogenic Pb. A scale effect has also been identified since Pb root accumulation under laboratory conditions was 2.4 times higher than in the field experiment. Despite an increase in the Pb extraction rate with CA, buckwheat appears to lack the efficiency needed to remove Pb in moderately contaminated soils. The calculated remediation period would last 166 years to remove the mobile Pb fraction.