Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a commonly inherited form of neuropathy. Although named over 100 years ago, identification of subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth has rapidly expanded in the preceding decades with the advancement of genetic sequencing, including type 2F (CMT2F), due to mutations in heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27). However, despite CMT being one of the most common inherited neurological diseases, definitive mechanistic models of pathology and effective treatments for CMT2F are lacking. This review extensively profiles the published literature on CMT2F and distal hereditary motor neuropathy II (dHMN II), a similar neuropathy with exclusively motor symptoms that is also due to mutations in Hsp27. This includes a review of case reports and sequencing studies detailing disease course. Included are tables listing of all known published mutations of Hsp27 that cause symptoms of CMT2F and dHMN II. Furthermore, pathological mechanisms are assessed. While many groups have established pathologies relating to defective chaperone function, cellular neurofilament and microtubule structure and function, and mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction, there are still discrepancies in results between different model systems. Moreover, initial mouse models have also produced promising results with similar phenotypes to humans, however discrepancies still exist. Both patient-focused and scientific studies have demonstrated variability in phenotypes even considering specific mutations. Given the clinical heterogeneity in presentation, CMT2F and dHMN II likely result from similar pathological mechanisms of the same general disease process that may present distinctly due to other genetic and environment influences. Determining how these influences exert their effects to produce pathology contributing to the disease phenotype will be a major future challenge ahead in the field. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.