the Akdr strain is known to contain the L1014F mutation in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. Surprisingly, etofenprox displays a lower level of resistance than permethrin against all stages of mosquitoes, except in a headless larval paralysis assay designed to minimize penetration factors. In first-instar An. gambiae larvae, permethrin had significant resistance, determined by the resistance ratio (RR50 = 5), but etofenprox was not significantly different (RR50 = 3.4) from the wild-type strain. Fourth-instar larvae displayed the highest level of resistance for permethrin (RR50 = 108) and etofenprox (RR50 = 35). Permethrin (PC50 = 2 ppb) and etofenprox (PC50 = 9 ppb) resulted in headless larval paralysis (5-h), but resistance, albeit lower, was still present for permethrin (RR50 = 5) and etofenprox (RR50 = 6.9). In adult female mosquitoes, permethrin displayed higher resistance (RR50 = 14) compared to etofenprox (RR50 = 4.3). The level of etofenprox resistance was different from that previously reported for a similar Akron An. gambiae laboratory strain (MRA-913). The chemical synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and diethyl maleate (DEM) were able to synergize permethrin, but not etofenprox in the resistant strain (Akdr). In conclusion, multiple mechanisms are likely involved in pyrethroid resistance, but resistance profiles are dependent upon selection. Etofenprox is an effective insecticide against An. gambiae in the lab but will likely suffer from resistance in the field.