Abstract This article aims to perform an analysis of the factors that determine the self-perception of oral health of Brazilians, based on a multidimensional methodology basis. This is a cross-sectional study with data from a national survey. A household interview was conducted with a sample of 60,202 adults. Self-perception of oral health was considered the outcome variable and sociodemographic characteristics, self-care and oral health condition, use of dental services, general health and work condition as independent variables. The dimensionality reduction test was used and the variables that showed a relationship were submitted to logistic regression. The negative oral health condition was related to difficulty feeding, negative evaluation of the last dental appointment, negative self-perception of general health condition, not flossing, upper dental loss, and reason for the last dental appointment. The use of a multidimensional methodological basis was able to design explanatory models for the self-perception of oral health of Brazilian adults, and these results should be considered in the implementation, evaluation, and qualification of the oral health network.