Human platelet acid extract obtained from both whole platelets and from isolated subcellular granules was partially purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex gel filtration. The heat-stable, nondialyzable cationic protein fraction with a mol wt of approximately 30,000 produced a biphasic increase in vascular permeability in rabbit skin and also had antiheparin activity. The acute (15 min) increase in vascular permeability was blocked by prior treatment of the animal with antihistamine and was characterized histologically by edema of perivascular tissues and dilation of capillaries and veinules. The delayed (3 hr) permeability effect was not blocked by antihistamine and was characterized histologically by leukocytic infiltration into the skin. The experiments described suggest that human platelet lysosomal release of cationic proteins may increase vascular permeability by several mechanisms including endogenous histamine release as well as delayed chemotaxis.