The aldolase B gene is transcribed at a high level in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. This high level of gene expression results from cooperation between a weak but liver-specific promoter and an intronic activator. A deletional study of this activator present in the first intron allowed us to ascribe the maximal enhancer function to a 400-base pair (bp) fragment (+1916 to + 2329). This enhancer is highly liver-specific and enhances the activity of heterologous minimal promoters in a position and distance-independent fashion in transiently transfected Hep G2 hepatoma cells. The aldolase B enhancer is composed of two domains, a 200-bp module (Ba) inactive by itself but which synergizes with another 200-bp module (Bb) that alone retains 25% of the total enhancer activity. The Bb sequence is 76% homologous between human and rat genes and contains several binding sites for liver-enriched nuclear factors. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that elements 5 and 7 bind hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF1), whereas element 2 binds hepatic nuclear factor 4 (HNF4). A functional analysis of the enhancer whose elements have been mutated demonstrated that mutation of any of the HNF1 sites totally suppressed enhancer activity, whereas mutation of the HNF4-binding site reduced it by 80%.