Medical waste incinerator fly ash (MWIFA) is quite different from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash (MSWIFA) due to its special characteristics of high levels of chlorines, dioxins, carbon constituents, and heavy metals, which may cause irreversible harm to environment and human beings if managed improperly. However, treatment of MWIFA has rarely been specifically mentioned. In this review, various treatment techniques for MSWIFA, and their merits, demerits, applicability, and limitations for MWIFA are reviewed. Natural properties of MWIFA including the high contents of chlorine and carbonaceous matter that might affect the treatment effects of MWIFA are also depicted. Finally, several commendatory and feasible technologies such as roasting, residual carbon melting, the mechanochemical technique, flotation, and microwave treatment are recommended after an overall consideration of the special characteristics of MWIFA, balancing environmental, technological, economical information.