We analyzed the improvement of prostate cancer detection rate (PCDR) in Chinese Han population and summarized the characteristics of prostate cancer (PCa) with the advancement of prostate biopsy technologies. From March 1999 to March 2015, 3762 patients underwent the systematic 6-, 8- or 13-core biopsy, guided by finger or transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) at our center. The PCDR under different PSA intervals and different biopsy methods were analyzed. The trends of PSA level, age and Gleason score of PCa patients were summarized. The PCDR of finger-guided 6- and 8-core biopsies were 30.8% (340/1103) and 36.7% (147/401) respectively. In 2258 patients with TRUS-guided 13-core biopsies, 992 (43.9%) were diagnosed as PCa, higher than that with finger-guided biopsies (43.9% vs. 32.4%, p < 0.001). The PCDR of prostate peripheral zone was higher than that of medial zone (37.5% vs. 31.4%, p < 0.001). Interestingly, the PCDR of extra 13th core was higher than the mean positive rate of other 12 cores (70.7% vs. 56.0%, p < 0.001). The systematic 13-core prostate biopsy guided by TRUS is safe, effective, and economic for PCa diagnosis in developing countries like China. The extra 13th core biopsy is beneficial to increase the PCDR.