A new human cell line, TR14 , has been established in tissue culture from biopsy material of a primary neuroblastoma tumor. Most TR14 cells have short processes and grow mainly in clumps adhering to cells attached to the substratum. TR14 cells form colonies in soft agar demonstrating anchorage independence of growth and produce tumors in nude mice with histologies similar to that of the patient's tumor. The neurotransmitter-synthesizing activity of these cells is predominantly cholinergic with only a minor adrenergic component, since the activity of choline acetyltransferase is about 20-fold greater than that of tyrosine hydroxylase. Treatment with N6,O2'-dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate induces TR14 neuroblastoma cells to extend fine, long processes or neurites. This morphological change is accompanied by elevated numbers of cytoplasmic dense-core vesicles observed by electron microscopy and an increase in the activities of neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzymes. Differentiation therefore occurs at the levels of cellular morphology, ultrastructure, and biochemistry. Prostaglandin E1 and cholera toxin can also induce differentiation, but a range of other agents including dimethyl sulfoxide, nerve growth factor, butyrate, corticosteroids, and 5-bromodeoxyuridine is ineffective. The concomitant induction of both morphological and biochemical differentiation therefore appears to be exclusively a cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-mediated event in this cell line.