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Channelopathies of voltage-gated L-type Cav1.3/α1D and T-type Cav3.1/α1G Ca2+ channels in dysfunction of heart automaticity

Authors
  • Torrente, Angelo G.1, 2
  • Mesirca, Pietro1, 2
  • Bidaud, Isabelle1, 2
  • Mangoni, Matteo E.1, 2
  • 1 Université de Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, 141, rue de la cardonille, Montpellier, 34094, France , Montpellier (France)
  • 2 LabEx Ion Channels Science and Therapeutics (ICST), Montpellier, France , Montpellier (France)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jun 29, 2020
Volume
472
Issue
7
Pages
817–830
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00424-020-02421-1
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

The heart automaticity is a fundamental physiological function in vertebrates. The cardiac impulse is generated in the sinus node by a specialized population of spontaneously active myocytes known as “pacemaker cells.” Failure in generating or conducting spontaneous activity induces dysfunction in cardiac automaticity. Several families of ion channels are involved in the generation and regulation of the heart automaticity. Among those, voltage-gated L-type Cav1.3 (α1D) and T-type Cav3.1 (α1G) Ca2+ channels play important roles in the spontaneous activity of pacemaker cells. Ca2+ channel channelopathies specifically affecting cardiac automaticity are considered rare. Recent research on familial disease has identified mutations in the Cav1.3-encoding CACNA1D gene that underlie congenital sinus node dysfunction and deafness (OMIM # 614896). In addition, both Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels have been identified as pathophysiological targets of sinus node dysfunction and heart block, caused by congenital autoimmune disease of the cardiac conduction system. The discovery of channelopathies linked to Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels underscores the importance of Ca2+ channels in the generation and regulation of heart’s automaticity.

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