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The changing epidemiology of hepatitis B and C infections in Nanoro, rural Burkina Faso: a random sampling survey

Authors
  • Lingani, Moussa1, 2, 3
  • Akita, Tomoyuki1
  • Ouoba, Serge3
  • Nagashima, Shintaro1
  • Boua, Palwende Romuald3
  • Takahashi, Kazuaki1
  • Kam, Basile3
  • Sugiyama, Aya1
  • Nikiema, Théodore3
  • Yamamoto, Chikako1
  • Somé, Athanase3
  • Derra, Karim2, 3
  • Ko, Ko1
  • Sorgho, Hermann2, 3
  • Tarnagda, Zekiba4
  • Tinto, Halidou2, 3
  • Tanaka, Junko1
  • 1 Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan , Hiroshima (Japan)
  • 2 Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Direction Régionale du Centre Ouest (IRSS/DRCO), Nanoro, 11 BP 218, Burkina Faso , Nanoro (Burkina Faso)
  • 3 Unité de Recherche Clinique de Nanoro (URCN), Nanoro, 11 BP 218, Burkina Faso , Nanoro (Burkina Faso)
  • 4 Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso , Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)
Type
Published Article
Journal
BMC Infectious Diseases
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Jan 15, 2020
Volume
20
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4731-7
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundThis study sought to provide up-to-date hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) seroprevalence in rural Burkina Faso decade after hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in the national immunization scheduled for children.MethodsIn 2018, a community-based, random sampling strategy with probability proportional to population size was conducted in Nanoro to investigate the prevalence of viral hepatitis in children and their mothers. Sociodemographic, vaccination history and risk factors were assessed by interview and health books. HBsAg rapid tests were done by finger prick and Dried Blood Spots (DBS) were collected for hepatitis seromarkers by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. Positive samples underwent confirmatory PCR and phylogenetic analysis.ResultsData were presented on 240 mother-child pairs. HBsAg Prevalence was 0.8% in children and 6.3% in mothers. Hepatitis B core antibody positivity was 89.2% in mothers, 59.2% in children and was associated with age, sex and scarification. Hepatitis B surface antibodies prevalence was 37.5% in children and 5.8% in mothers. Good vaccination coverage was limited by home delivery. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV strains based on full genome sequences (n = 7) and s-fragment sequences (n = 6) revealed genotype A, E, and recombinant A3/E. Viral genome homology was reported in one mother-child pair. Anti-HCV prevalence was 5.4% in mothers, 2.1% in children and strains belonged to genotype 2.ConclusionsIn Nanoro, HBsAg prevalence was low in children, intermediate in mothers and mother-to-child transmission persists. Home delivery was a limiting factor of Hepatitis B vaccination coverage. HBV genotype E was predominant and genotype A3/E is reported for the first time in Burkina Faso.

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