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Changes in the volatile profile of skim milk powder prepared under different processing conditions and the effect on the volatile flavor profile of model white chocolate.

Authors
  • Stewart, Ashleigh1
  • Grandison, Alistair1
  • Fagan, Colette1
  • Ryan, Angela2
  • Festring, Daniel2
  • Parker, Jane K3
  • 1 Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 2 Nestlé Product Technology Centre Confectionery, PO Box 204, Haxby Road, York YO91 1XY, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 3 Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, United Kingdom. Electronic address: [email protected] , (United Kingdom)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Dairy Science
Publisher
American Dairy Science Association
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2018
Volume
101
Issue
10
Pages
8822–8836
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3168/jds.2018-14414
PMID: 30122413
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The objective of this work is to determine the extent to which changes in the skim milk powder (SMP) manufacturing process alter the volatile profile of SMP, and whether these changes are carried through to a final product when the SMP is used as an ingredient and subjected to further processing. The manufacture of SMP is a multistage process involving a preliminary concentration step, heat treatment, and a drying stage. However, the methods and conditions used by the industry are not standardized, and the inherent variability in the production of SMP has consequences for the end-users, such as the confectionery industry, where the SMP is used as an ingredient during the production of milk chocolate, white chocolate, and caramel. This study investigates the effect of each stage of the manufacturing process on the concentration of reducing sugars and available amino groups (as precursors of the Maillard reaction) as well as on the volatile products of the Maillard reaction and lipid degradation. Eight types of SMP were produced using combinations of different processing conditions: concentration (by evaporation or reverse osmosis), heat treatment (low heat or high heat), and drying (spray-drying or freeze-drying). Maillard precursors were quantified after each processing stage and volatile compounds were extracted using solid-phase microextraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting SMP were incorporated into a model white chocolate system, produced under varying conching conditions. We demonstrate not only that changes in the SMP manufacturing conditions affect the volatile profile of SMP, but also that these differences can be carried through to a final product when the SMP is used to prepare a model white chocolate. Understanding these differences is important to the industry for controlling the flavor of the end product. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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