The existence of efferent connections between tuberomammillary (TM) and the supraoptic (SON) nuclei led us to study the morphological changes at these levels during dehydration induced in rats by repeated administration of hypertonic saline. The dehydration effects are evaluated by three parameters: nucleus area, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NOR) area, and mean number of Ag-NORs. These parameters reflect the level of transcriptional activity of the rRNA genes, which in turn is closely related to the protein synthesis activity of the cell. The technique used is argyrophilic staining which labels the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of the nucleoli in the neurons and their area, permitting their quantification with an image analysis system. The statistical analysis reflects the sensitivity to dehydration of these structures at TM level. Our results support the regulatory role of vasopressin secretion by SON through the histaminergic pathways arising from TM in rat dehydration processes.