Abstract We studied the behaviour in interphase and mitotic human cells of a 125 kDa (pI 6.5) antigen, associated with the nuclear matrix and detected in proliferating cells. Indirect immunofluorescence with a specific monoclonal antibody reveals that during interphase in WISH and Namalwa cells, as well as phytohaemagglutinin—stimulated lymphocytes, the antigen displays a speckled distribution in the nucleoplasm of all cells. At early prophase the fluorescence intensity of the coalesced speckles increases markedly. During metaphase and anaphase the antigen gives maximal fluorescence distributed diffusely in the nucleoplasm, while chromosomes remain negative. At anaphase and cytokinesis the antigen is still cytoplasmic, but fluorescence intensity decreases. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting reveal that the p125/6.5 antigen displays a net increase in isolated mitotic cells as compared to interphase cells. These results suggest that the p125/6.5 protein participates in late G2 phase and G2/M transition events preparing the cell for mitosis.