The impact of planktonic and biofilm lifestyles of the clinical isolate Proteus mirabilis 9B-m on its lipopolysaccharide (O-polysaccharide, core region, and lipid A) was evaluated. Proteus mirabilis bacteria are able to form biofilm and lipopolysaccharide is one of the factors involved in the biofilm formation. Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from planktonic and biofilm cells of the investigated strain and analyzed by SDS–PAGE with silver staining, Western blotting and ELISA, as well as NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques. Chemical and NMR spectroscopic analyses revealed that the structure of the O-polysaccharide of P. mirabilis 9B-m strain did not depend on the form of cell growth, but the full-length chains of the O-antigen were reduced when bacteria grew in biofilm. The study also revealed structural modifications of the core region in the lipopolysaccharide of biofilm-associated cells—peaks assigned to compounds absent in cells from the planktonic culture and not previously detected in any of the known Proteus core oligosaccharides. No differences in the lipid A structure were observed. In summary, our study demonstrated for the first time that changes in the lifestyle of P. mirabilis bacteria leads to the modifications of their important virulence factor—lipopolysaccharide.