Leishmania sp., are trypanosomatid parasites that are phagocytized by human and animal macrophages. Transformation from the vector promastigote stage to the intracellular amastigote host cell stage is mandatory, since development in the host depends on the internalization of the parasite. We identified and analyzed the lipids involved in the promastigote to amastigote transformation process in the Leishmania donovani complex. Four lipid classes, phospholipids, free fatty acids, triglycerides and sterols were studied. The derivatization method of Bligh and Dyer was used to establish the fatty acid composition in each stage of the parasite. To stay within the context of Leishmania infection, we used amastigotes extracted from macrophages after experimental in vitro infection. The purification process was checked by electronic microscopy, the absence of major contamination by host-cell debris and a correct purification yield validated our experimental model. Our results show that free fatty acids and cholesterol increased, whereas triglycerides and ergosterol decreased during the transition between promastigotes to amastigotes. With respect to phospholipid classes, we found increased proportion of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylserine and lowered proportion of phosphatidylinositol and lysophosphatidylethanolamine. Regarding fatty acid composition, a significant increase of n-7 fatty acids was observed in amastigotes. Overall, the total n-6 fatty acids were decreased in PL. Several of the changes were also observed in TG and free fatty acids. Particularly, n-7 fatty acids and 20:4n-6 were highly increased, whereas n-9 fatty acid and n-6 precursors decreased.