The effects of changes in the fatty acid composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced by growth conditions on its resistance to two quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) were investigated. The temperature and growth phase were the most influential parameters affecting the fatty acid composition of this bacterium. Furthermore, the formation of saturated fatty acids and cyclopropane fatty acids was stimulated by increasing the temperature, whereas the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids fell. The degree of saturation and the proportion of cyclopropane fatty acids increased in the course of the exponential and stationary phases. These modifications mostly concerned the inner membrane of the bacterium. Resistance of P. aeruginosa to both QAC tested was not significantly influenced by temperature and growth phase variations. Thus, resistance to the two QAC did not seem to be dependent on modifications of the fatty acid composition of the inner membrane.