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Changes in Ensembles’ Thermal Insulation According to Garment’s Fit and Length Based on Athletic Figure

  • Špelić, Ivana1
  • Rogale, Dubravko1
  • Mihelić Bogdanić, Alka2
  • Petrak, Slavenka1
  • Naglić, Maja Mahnić1
  • 1 University of Zagreb, Department of Clothing Technology, Faculty of Textile Technology, Zagreb, 10000, Croatia , Zagreb (Croatia)
  • 2 University of Zagreb, Department of Basic, Natural and Technical Sciences, Faculty of Textile Technology, Zagreb, 10000, Croatia , Zagreb (Croatia)
Published Article
Fibers and Polymers
The Korean Fiber Society
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2018
DOI: 10.1007/s12221-018-1074-8
Springer Nature


The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of design solutions on the thermal insulation of the garments and the ensembles. Previous studies investigated the microclimatic air gaps and volumes, however only under the first - and the second - layered clothing. Since none of the previous studies covered three - layered ensembles, in this study ensembles were accompanied by jackets of different fit and length to investigate the ensembles’ thermal insulation. Variants of bomber jacket differ in the amount of the ease allowance, while variants of the parka differ in length. The thermal insulation of the ensembles increased for 21.6 to 59.7 % when one of the jacket variants was added as the outerwear garment. A threshold volume, after which the thermal insulation will start to decrease due to convection, wasn’t determined for the outerwear third - layered garments nor was the impact of the length of the garment on the thermal insulation clearly stated. This study involved laboratory testing of garments and ensembles by 3D body scanning and thermal manikin measurements. To evaluate the volume of the microclimatic air volume the accurate 3D body scanning was used and the impact of the microclimatic volume on the ensemble’s insulation was tested. The thermal insulation for the selected outerwear garments and afterwards ensembles was measured by resting thermal manikin. Analysis of the results obtained from tests, showed that the garments’ fit and length can be used to model the overall thermal insulation of the ensembles. The ensembles insulation enlargement was measured for microclimatic volumes up to 33.57 dm3 (measured with ensembles accompanied with bomber jacket). The study proved that the limiting microclimatic volume is greater for three - layered clothing, than previously reported. The overall ensembles’ insulation increased simultaneously with the length enlargement (measured with ensembles accompanied with parka jacket). Findings will be of help in the future research on garments and ensembles thermal properties modelled through the design process and the construction.

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