We herein summarize the available literature on the effects of bariatric surgery (BS) on energy expenditure in individuals with obesity. We conducted a systematic literature review, and 35 prospective studies met our inclusion criteria. The findings indicate that BS contributes to increased diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and decreased total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in patients with obesity. The meta-analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in TEE and REE within 6 months following BS. With the sustained decrease in REE, there was no further decrease in TEE between the 6- and 12-month follow-up. Increased DIT might explain the variance between the patterns of REE and TEE change. The postoperative decrease in REE/FFM and increase in REE/BW were observed. The changes in substrate utilization might be consistent with the change in the respiration quotient postoperatively.