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Changes in Depressive Symptoms During the Antenatal Period: A Cohort Study from Bangladesh

Authors
  • Begum, Musammet Rasheda1
  • Biswas, Soma Chowdhury2
  • 1 Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Khulshi, Chattogram, Bangladesh.
  • 2 Dept. of Statistics, University of Chittagong, Hathazari, Chattogram, Bangladesh
Type
Published Article
Journal
Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Publisher
SAGE Publications
Publication Date
Oct 20, 2020
Volume
42
Issue
6
Pages
519–524
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1177/0253717620954337
PMID: 33354076
PMCID: PMC7735240
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Original Articles
License
Unknown

Abstract

Background: Antenatal depressive symptoms adversely affect the health and well-being of women, babies, and their families. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and probable associated factors of depressivse symptoms. Methods: A prospective cohort approach was adopted, and 435 pregnant women were assessed longitudinally at an antenatal clinic in the first, second, and third trimesters. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to measure self-reported depressive symptoms. The multivariate approach of the general linear model was used to evaluate the mean differences of depression scores among the trimesters. To investigate the associated factors of depressive symptoms, generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to take into account the clustering effect. Results: More than half (58.13%) of the pregnant women had antenatal depressive symptoms in at least one trimester. Depressive symptoms decreased throughout the pregnancy; they were higher in the first trimester and declined toward the third trimester. Significant mean differences were found in depression scores among the three trimesters. GEE showed that trimester, education, family income, and body mass index (BMI) are significantly associated with antenatal depressive symptoms. Conclusions: First trimester is the most critical period for identification of depressive symptoms. At-risk women need to be treated. Proper education achievement, economic solvency, and adequate nutrition could reduce the depressive symptoms.

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