AbstractA hypothesis is proposed that the cytokine storm syndrome, which complicates COVID-19 in some patients, is a consequence of antibody-dependent enhancement of virus infection, which is in turn happens due to a change in dominant antigenic determinants of SARS-CoV-2 S-protein. The antibody-dependent enhancement of virus infection is a phenomenon in which virus-specific antibodies that are not neutralizing enhance the entry of infectious virus into immune cells causing their death. Antibody-dependent enhancement has been reported for different coronaviruses. This phenomenon happens due to a decrease in the binding strength of neutralizing antibodies to the virus, which converts these antibodies into suboptimal—not neutralizing ones. According to our hypothesis, such a decrease in affinity may be associated with a change in the conformation of the viral S-protein. We believe that this conformational change is the major factor in the switching of antibodies affinity, which triggers antibody-dependent enhancement. However, other factors that contribute to antigen drift and antigenic determinant changes may also play a role.