The Nordic welfare states face several challenges in the years to come. In this report, we have emphasized some of these challenges, and we will try to develop comparable indicators which may contribute to illustrating them. In Chapter 1, we look at different welfare models, and in Chapter 2, we look at which challenges can be identified. In the following chapters, we demonstrate indicators and analyse the various challenges. Chapter 3 touches on the expenditure of the welfare state, while demographic changes are discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with education, and in Chapter 6 we take a look at income distribution and social exclusion. Different aspects of the labour market are described in Chapter 7. Here we look at different forms of weak connections with the labour market, as well as work activities among seniors. In Chapter 8, we describe health, and finally Chapter 9 concerns housing where we take a look at standard, economy and housing environment.