Feline calicivirus (FCV) has been shown to evolve within individual cats and in the environment of colonies. This evolution and the diversity it creates has important clinical implications, not only for the disease in cats, but also for attempts to control disease by vaccination. Generally speaking, existing vaccines appear to be very effective at controlling the majority of clinical disease. However, some concerns remain including a failure to induce sterilising immunity, occasional vaccine breakdowns, and for live vaccines, occasional vaccine-induced disease. Key areas for future vaccine development include monitoring and broadening the cross-reactivity of vaccine immunity to field viruses, especially the recently evolved highly virulent strains, and attempting to reduce/eliminate field virus shedding by vaccinated cats.