The importance of adherence to antiretroviral drugs was the main topic of discussion at the 12th World AIDS Conference. Topics discussed include viral breakthrough and drug resistance, the widespread problem of nonadherence in increasing viral load, and factors associated with nonadherence. New treatments have led to a significant decline in AIDS cases and deaths in the developed world. However, nonadherence has become a significant treatment issue, with studies reporting that up to 25 percent of patients have taken their medications inaccurately. Steps to improve adherence include reducing the number of medications, managing side effects, and developing drugs that are easily administered. A summary for improving adherence is provided.