Recently, mild to moderate renal dysfunction has attracted attention as a new common disease in Japan as well as all over the world. Also, the morbidity of endstage renal disease and progression to dialysis is increasing each year. It is now widely recognized that renal dysfunction is a major risk for cardiovascular disease; therefore, cardio-renal relationships should be investigated. To elucidate the pathophysiology of this relationship and develop new methods for early diagnosis, treatment and prevention can promise a long and healthy life. It is also important to provide high quality data on urinalysis and kidney function.