A cDNA clone has been isolated from a library prepared of mRNA of human breast cancer T47D cells with an oligonucleotide probe homologous to part of the region encoding the DNA-binding domain of steroid receptors. The clone has a size of 1505 bp and sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1356 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence displays two highly conserved regions identified as the putative DNA-binding and hormone binding domains respectively of steroid receptors. Expression of this cDNA clone in COS cells produces a nuclear protein with all the binding characteristics of the human androgen receptor (hAR). The gene encoding the cDNA is assigned to the human X-chromosome. High levels of three hybridizing mRNA species of 11, 8.5 and 4.7 kb respectively are found in the human prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP), which contains elevated levels of hAR. The present data provide evidence that we have isolated a cDNA that encodes a major part of the human androgen receptor.