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A Challenge to the Validity of the Vi Test for the Detection of Chronic Typhoid Carriers

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Urinary Retention Urinary Retention National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Urinary retention is the inability to empty the bladder. With chronic urinary reten- tion, you may be able to urinate, but you have trouble starting a stream or emptying your bladder completely. You may urinate frequently; you may feel an urgent need to urinate but have little success when you get to the toilet; or you may feel you still have to go after you’ve finished urinating. With acute urinary retention, you can’t urinate at all, even though you have a full bladder. Acute urinary retention is a medical emer- gency requiring prompt action. Chronic urinary retention may not seem life threat- ening, but it can lead to serious problems and should also receive attention from a health professional. Anyone can experience urinary retention, but it is most common in men in their fifties and sixties because of prostate enlargement. A woman may experience urinary retention if her bladder sags or moves out of the nor- mal position, a condition called cystocele. The bladder can also sag or be pulled out of position by a sagging of the lower part of the colon, a condition called rectocele. Some people have urinary retention from rectoce- les. People of all ages and both sexes can have nerve disease or nerve damage that interferes with bladder function. Kidney Ureter Bladder Urethra Prostate Male and female urinary tracts. What is the urinary tract? The urinary tract consists of the organs, tubes, and muscles that work together to make, move, store, and release urine. The upper urinary tract includes the kidneys, which filter wastes and extra fluid from the blood, and the ureters, which carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. The lower urinary tract includes the bladder, a balloon-shaped muscle that stores urine,

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