Abstract Firstly, evidence is advanced to show that there is defective absorption of carbohydrate in cases of coeliac disease, namely :- 1. (a) The association of flat oral with high intravenous glucose tolerance curves. 2. (b) The improvement of these intravenous curves towards normality by intravenous glucose therapy. 3. (c) The existence of a state of relative insensitivity to insulin comparable to that of a normal person on a low carbohydrate diet. Secondly, it is shown that total liver extracts contain a factor, possibly identical with “insulin-kinase” capable of improving the glucose tolerance and sensitivity to insulin where it is impaired by the carbohydrate deprivation consequent upon defective absorption or by liver disease, sometimes to the great clinical benefit of the patient. This factor does not seem to be identical with Castle's essential factor, and is more active in campolon than in anahaemin.