Abstract We prepared monoclonal antibodies against chicken histone H5. These antibodies could be divided into two classes, and we present the results obtained with one representative antibody of each class. One class reacted exclusively with chicken H5, whereas the other additionally cross-reacted with rat H1° and with material present in adult but not embryonic chicken liver. The cross-reacting material in adult liver was identified by Western blotting as representing a minor band in histone preparations. The protein was not present in histone extracts from chicken erythrocytes. It is likely that this newly identified protein is a chicken H1° histone.