There has been a rapid increase in the number of cesarean sections performed. At the Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish General Hospital in Montreal, the authors reviewed the records of all cesarean sections performed between Jan. 1, 1973 and Dec. 31, 1979. The rate increased from 10,8% in 1973 to 19% in 1977, due primarily to an increasing trend to diagnose, and perform cesarean section for, dystocia. All breech presentations are also delivered by cesarean section but fewer cesarean sections are being performed for fetal distress. Cesarean section is still a major operation and the procedure is associated with substantial maternal morbidity.